Cognitive distortions: What they are and how they affect?

Errors in information processing are calledcognitive distortions.These distortions are the result of irrational beliefs about our environment and affect greatly within our self-perception, and therefore our self-esteem.

Here are the main cognitive distortions…

Selective filtering or abstraction: It consists of selecting as a “tunnel vision” one aspect of a situation, something that stains the entire interpretation of the situation and does not take into account others who contradict it.An example: a person is a friend and many pleasant subjects speak, however, discuss politics, and go home feeling irritated at the criticism of him to think his political views, forgetting the other pleasant subjects shared.The negative is filtered, the positive forget.Keywords for detecting this distortion are: “I cannot stand this,” “I cannot stand it …” “It’s horrible,” “It’s unbearable.”

Cognitive Distortions

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Polarized thought: Consists of assessing developments in extreme form regardless intermediate aspects. Things are valued as good or bad, black or white, forgetting intermediate grades.For example, a boy who receives an inviting a girl out, he thinks: “Only bad things happen to me.”Another person who cannot find work thinks, “I am an incompetent and useless.”Keywords for detecting this distortion are those that MAXIMISING forgetting valuations intermediate shades and degrees.Examples: “Failed”, “coward”, “useless”, etc.

Over generalization: This distortion of thought is to draw a general conclusion one particular fact without other evidence.For example, a person seeking works and cannot find it and concludes: “I never get a job.”Another person who feels sad and thinks: “I will always be so.”Keywords that indicate that a person is over generalizing are “EverythingNo oneNeverAlwaysEveryoneAny”.

Interpretation of thought and arbitrary inference: This refers to the tendency to interpret baseless feelings and intentions of others.Sometimes these interpretations are based on a mechanism called projective of assigning to others their own feelings and motivations, as if others were similar to oneself.For example, a person notices as strange look and think: “I know who think ill of me.”Someone else is waiting for another on a date and it takes five minutes and without any evidence, pops into his head: “I know I is lying and cheating.”Keywords of this distortion are: “That’s because …” “That’s because …” “I know that’s why …”.Arbitrary inference is very similar to the interpretation of thought and refers to the process of advancing a particular conclusion in the absence of supporting evidence or the evidence is contrary.

Catastrophic vision: Consists forward so catastrophic events for personal interests, without any proof placed on the worst for yourself.For example, a person is viewing the statistics of traffic accident on television and you are going through your head: “And if I happen to me.”Another heard the news that a person lost control and killed himself, and think, “What if the same happens to me?” The key word usually indicates this distortion often. “And if I happen to my … such thing?”

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Custom: This is the habit of relating, without sufficient basis, the facts of the environment with oneself.For example: At work a person had the impression that every time the manager spoke to who had to improve the quality of work related only to him.This person thought: “I know this was written for me.”A woman listening to her husband complain about how boring weekend, I thought, “Sure you think I’m boring.”One type of customization is the habit of comparing with others frequently, “I am less sociable Joseph” “He ignore him but not to me.”Key words are: “He says to me”, “I do this better (or worse) than this.”

Maximizing and minimization: The events are evaluated giving an exaggerated or undervalued weight based on real evidence.It tends to overestimate the negative aspects of the situation and underestimate the positive.

Fallacy control: Is how the person sees herself in an extreme manner on the degree of control you have over the events of his life.Either the person is commonly believed very competent and responsible for everything that happens around him, or at the other end is powerless and without having any control over the events of his life. Examples: “If other people will change their attitude I feel good”, “I am responsible for the suffering of the people around me”.Key words are: “I cannot do anything …” “I just feel good if that person changes such,” “I am responsible for all …”

Justice fallacy: This involves the habit of evaluating how unfair everything that does not coincide with our desires.A person fails an exam without evidence thinks: “It is unfair that have failed me ‘.Another think about your partner: “If I really appreciate not tell me that.”Keywords are: “There is no right to …” “It’s unfair …” “If you really so, then … is”.

Emotional reasoning: It Consists believe that what a person feels emotionally necessarily true.For example, if a person feels irritated is because someone has done something to make her mad, if you feel anxious is that there is a real danger, etc.The emotions felt are taken as an objective fact and not as derived from the personal interpretation of the facts.Key words here are: “If I feel this way … is because I …/ or this has happened …”

Exchange fallacy: Consists in believing that the welfare of self depends exclusively on the actions of others. The person often believes that their needs are others who must first change their behavior, believing that depend only on those.For example, a man thinks: “The relationship of my marriage only improve if you change my wife.” The key words are: “If such a change such a thing, then I could such a thing.”

Tags global: Is to put a general name or label globalizing ourselves or others usually designating the verb “to be”. When we label generally globalize all aspects of a person or event from the perspective of being, reducing it to a single element.This produces a vision of the world and stereotyped and inflexible people.It is the effect encompass under a different label particular facts and inadequately.For example: A man whenever he had some difficulty in talking to a woman who pleased him, he said, “I’m shy, why is this happening.”The key words are: “I am a,” “It’s a,” “They are …”

Guilt: Consists of attribute responsibility for events either very self or to others, without sufficient basis and without taking into account other factors that contribute to events.For example a mother whenever their children rattled or cried tended to become irritated with them and blaming herself for not knowing better educate them. Another person who was getting fat is blaming your spouse for putting too much fatty food.Another feature of guilt is not often leads people to change their behavior, but only to dwell on the bad acts.In this case, the keywords appear around: “My fault,” “Your fault,” “Blame …”

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Should: This is the habit of keeping rigid and demanding about how things have to happen rules.Any deviation from these rules or standards is considered intolerable or unbearable and leads to extreme emotional disturbance.Some psychologists have found that this distortion is at the base of the majority of emotional disorders.Examples of this are: a psychologist is constantly irritated with patients who did not follow their prescriptions and thought: “If should make me”;that prevented review its actions or explore the factors that could interfere with the monitoring of its indications.A man was worried excessively about possible errors that could make their work as it said “should be competent and act as a professional, and should not make mistakes” .The keywords as can be seen are: “You should …”, “No should … “,” I have to .. “,” I need … “” you have to .. “.The disorders should produce extreme emotions.It is clear that personal desires derived from rational beliefs (no cognitive distortions) can cause discomfort when not achieved, but not as extreme as the demands of the “should” (cognitive distortion), which also keeps us from achieving our goals to just set ourselves a rigid way.

Have reason: This involves the tendency to test frequently, before a disagreement with another person, that one view is right and true.No matter the arguments of the other, they are simply ignored and not heard.Example: A couple often discussed by way of educating the children, everyone said, “I have reason, he / she is wrong / a” and become entangled in ongoing discussions with great irritation of both.Do not reach an agreement; it is just a power struggle, to stand with your particular reason.Key words denoting this distortion are: “I have reason,” “I know I’m right,” “He / she is wrong / a”.

Divine reward fallacy: This involves the tendency to seek solutions to current problems and difficulties assuming that the situation will improve “magically” in the future or one will have a reward in the future if left as is.The effect is usually to accumulate a large unnecessary discomfort, resentment and seek solutions that would not be feasible at present.Example: a woman tolerates her husband gets drunk and yells late.She says, “If I hold tomorrow you will realize what I do for him.”However, it is accumulating a lot of anger and responds indirectly to your discomfort so when your partner asks you to have sex and she is opposed by “being tired and with a headache.”In this case the keywords that indicate this distortion are: “Tomorrow I will have my reward,” “things improve in the future.” Visit here more fitness tips.

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