Gluten is a protein component of the grains present in wheat and some varieties of cereals to farro, barley, rye, oats, spelled. These grains are contained in most baked goods: flour, bread, biscuits, pasta, and pizza.
Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance to gluten. This is not a disease but a simple condition that can occur because of a genetic predisposition and of gluten-containing foods. Predominantly it affects Caucasians, because of the high consumption of cereals containing gluten and is more common in women.
In Italy it is a condition that affects about 400 / 600,000 people, that strikes an Italian every 100/150 inhabitants. Many people can live many years with this condition without suffering from any disorder or significant symptom, so the number of diagnosed cases is actually much lower than the true incidence of the disease.
The only way to combat this type of disorder is to follow a diet free of gluten.
The exclusion of gluten from your diet inevitably affects choices and eating habits, such as shopping or eating out. However, the gluten-free diet is not, as it might seem, necessarily linked to the concept of renunciation. In the Mediterranean diet are a multitude of foods naturally free of gluten, such as rice, corn, buckwheat, legumes, potatoes, fish, meat, eggs, milk, cheese, vegetables and fruit.
It is important to choose appropriate quantities of foods belonging to the different groups of foods, alternating in the various meals of the day, so as to provide the right requirements for the organism. Most of the calories we eat (about 55%) should be derived from carbohydrates in plant foods: grains, legumes, tubers, vegetables and fruits. The total fat (animal food) must not exceed 30% of daily calorie intake, while proteins must cover the remaining 15% of energy needs.
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The important dissemination of celiac disease has brought greater attention and sensitivity to the disease and today there are many diet products for celiac disease that can be found in pharmacies, health food shops and supermarkets. The assortment consists of tasty foods and high-quality products, such as biscuits (if they can find something for everyone: from those with cacao and hazelnut to those in honey , from wafers to those chocolate chip, from those stuffed up those integrals), crackers, plum cakes, pasta, bread up into meals. Since 2005, these foods must be marked with the crossed ear. It is therefore important that consumers pay attention to the symbol of the absence of gluten (wheat spike barred). It offers people who suffer from gluten intolerance sure to consume a safe product. The use of the seal is subject to strict regulations and can be used only for products whose gluten content is a maximum of 20 milligrams per kilogram.
Nowadays, many are also restaurants and pizzerias that provide an ever greater attention to the celiac and in most of the gluten-free menu are specified.